poppy-1173525_1280As a result of the prolonged and continuous use of the most effective chemicals, weed populations have evolved resistance to their effects. In some parts of the world the conventional chemicals used to control common weeds have been rendered useless.

Resistance has now evolved to 21 of the 25 families of herbicides and over 400 unique cases of resistance have been recorded involving over 200 weed species. This increasing rate of resistance is putting a huge strain on the agriculture industry with severe impact on yields and costs of effective chemical treatments.

Pangaea Agrochemicals is currently developing a portfolio of plant protection products which combine existing active ingredients with patented technology to regain control over resistant weed strains. The first product Pangaea Primer for the control of resistant strains of black-grass was launched in 2015.

Ongoing research programmes focus on the following active substances and associated resistances:

Fops & Dims

Fops & Dims are effective selective graminicides that are applied postemergence. These includes: clodinafop, propaquizafop, fonoxaprop, and cycloxidim. Fops & Dims block an enzyme called acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) which helps the formation of fatty acids in the roots. Resistance has been reported in 47 weed species in more than 40 countries worldwide. Pangaea research focuses mainly on clodinafop but other Fops & Dims herbicides are currently under screening. Research projects are ongoing on the following weeds:

  • Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum)
  • Black-grass (Alopecurus mysuroides)


Glyphosate is a postemergence non-selective herbicide that kills plants by interfering with the synthesis of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. Glyphosate is by far the most used pesticide in history due to broad-spectrum efficacy, crop safety, ease of use and cost savings. To date, glyphosate resistance has been confirmed in 24 weed species worldwide. Pangaea technology applied in glyphosate-based formulations has demonstrated to overcome the resistance and to regain control of those “super weeds”. Pangaea research focuses on the following resistant weeds:

  • Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum)
  • Barnyard grass (Echinochloa spp)
  • Ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata)
  • Liverseed grass (Urochloa panicoides)


If you have an interest in the application of Pangaea’s technology to the control of resistant weed species then please contact us at contact@pangag.co.uk.

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